To understand what Communism does to independent Buddhist societies, we should remember what it did to Mongolian Buddhism in the 1930s. A few days ago, I found something I believed I had lost, a portrait of the 8th Bogd Khan of Mongolia, who was born in 1869 and died in 1924. The Bogd Khan, or Jebtsundamba Khutuktu, is the chief of the Buddhist Gelug lineage in Mongolia. The Gelug lineage is the same of the Dalai Lama, and the Bogd Khan is the third ranking person in the hierarchy of Tibetan Buddhism, after the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Lama.
The 8th Bogd Khan, like the Dalai Lama in Tibet, was at the same time the political ruler of Mongolia. It lost his power to Communism, and after his death no Bogd Khan was enthroned until the fall of the Soviet Empire. At that stage, the Dalai Lama announced that he had recognized in 1936 a four-year-old boy as the reincarnation of the Bogd Khan, but had kept his name secret for security reasons. The ninth Jebtsundamba Khutuktu was enthroned privately in Dharamsala in 1992 and publicly in Mongolia in 2011, one year before he died in 2012 at age 80.
Read more at “Mongolia, the Forgotten Genocide: Part I”